AAAA （美国广告代理商协会） AAAA (American Associations of Advertising
A trade association of U.S. advertising agencies.
傍晚时段（黄金段最初的时段） Early fringe
television, a daypart in late afternoon immediately prior to the airing of local
dayparts just before prime time (early fringe) and after the late news (late
given to viewers who are unselective about the content they watch. Passive
audiences are thought to watch TV out of habit tuning to almost anything if a
preferred show is unavailable.
标准误差 Standard error
standard deviation of a sampling distribution. It is the statistic used to make
statements about the accuracy of estimates based on sample information.
测量误差 Measurement error
or inaccuracy attributable to measurement procedures
A measure of central
tendency defined as that point in a distribution where half the cases have
higher values and half have lower values.
抽样框 Simple frame
A list of some population
from which a probability sample is actually drawn.
抽样误差 Sampling error
in survey data attributable to “the luck of the draw" in creating a probability
抽样率 Sampling rate
The ratio of sample size
to population size.
numbers or letters used to represent responses in a survey instrument like a
diary. Coding the responses allows computers to manipulate the data.
of survey design in which one sample is drawn from the population at a point in
独家累计受众 Exclusive cume audience
size of the unduplicated audience that listens exclusively to one station within
some specified period.
television programming strategy in which an unproven or weak show is scheduled
between two popular programs in hopes that viewers will stay tuned, thereby
enhancing the rating of the middle program.
of audience behavior that implies viewers are unlikely to change channels unless
Provoked by very unappealing programming.
The program that
immediately precedes another on the same channel. The size and composition of a
lead-in audience is an important determinant of a program's rating.
多台电视家庭 Multiset household
household with more than one working television set.
定位访问 Placement interview
initial interview to secure the willingness of the respondent to keep a diary or
receive a meter.
电视个人开机率 PUT (Person Using
A term describing the total size of the
television audience, in persons, at any time.
summaries of the audience that not only describe how many watched or listened,
but their reactions including enjoyment interest, attentiveness, and information
systematic investigation of the audience that does not depend on measurement and
quantification. Examples include focus groups and participant observation.
Sometimes used to describe any nonratings research, even if quantification is
involved, as in "qualitative ratings."
定额抽样 Quota sample
type of nonprobability sample in which categories of respondents called quotas
(e.g., males), are filled by interviewing respondents who are convenient.
number of unduplicated persons or households included in the audience of a
station or a commercial campaign over some specified period. Sometimes expressed
as a percentage of the market population.
television, a 4-week period during which ratings companies are collecting the
audience information necessary to produce local market reports.
A type of survey in which a
telephone interviewer asks the respondent what they listened to or watched in
the recent past, often the preceding day.
电视家庭 Television household
A common unit of
analysis in ratings research, it is any household equipped with a working
television set, excluding group quarters.
A nonprobability sample,
sometimes called an accidental sample, used because respondents are readily
available or convenient.
programming strategy in which a station or network schedules material appealing
to an audience other than the competition. Independents often counterprogram
local news with entertainment.
potential audience for a given station or network, defined by the size of the
population reached, or covered, by the signal.
A method of
collecting data through oral questioning of a respondent, either in person, or
over the telephone.
A kind of sample in
which every member of the population does not have a known probability of
selection into the sample.
programming services provided by a cable system for a monthly fee above and
beyond that required for basic cable. Paycable may include anyone of several
premium services like HBO, showtime, or The Disney Channel.
its simplest form, the percentage of persons or households tuned to a station or
program out of all those using the medium at that time.
of probability sample in which the population is organized into homogeneous
subsets or strata, after which a predetermined number of respondents is randomly
selected for each strata. Stratified sampling can reduce the sampling error
associated with simple random samples.
非重叠受众 Unduplicated audience
of different persons or households in an audience over a specified period.
分析单位 Unit of
The element or entity about
which a researcher collects information. In ratings, the unit of analysis is
usually a person or household.
广告代理 A trade association of U.S. advertising
A company that
prepares and places advertising for its clients Agencies typically have media
departments that specialize in planning, buying, and evaluating advertising
that acquires or produces programming and distributes that programming, usually
with national or regional advertising, to affiliated stations or cable systems.
label given to ratings, based on meters, that are available to clients the day
A kind of
sample in which every member of the population has an equal or known chance of
being selected into the sample. Sometimes called random samples, probability
samples allow statistical inferences about the accuracy of sample estimates.
户外收听 Away from home
Estimate of radio listening that occurs
outside the home. Such listening usually takes place in a car or workplace.
The practice in
attempting to interview someone in a survey sample who was not contacted or
interviewed on an earlier try. The number of call back attempts is an important
determinant of response rates and nonresponse error.
黄金时间 Prime time
A television daypart from
7p.m. to 11p.m.EST. Due to FCCeregulations, broadcast networks typically feed
programming only from 8p.m.to llp.m.EST.
A sample member who
provides information in response to questions.
Inaccuracies in survey data
attributable to the quality of responses, including lying, forgetting, or
services provided by a cable system for the lowest of its monthly charges. These
services typically include local television signals, advertiser-supported cable
networks, and local access.
节目组合 Block programming
practice of scheduling similar programs in sequence to promote audience flow.
nursing homes, prisons, and other living arrangements that do not qualify as
households, and are, therefore, not measured by ratings companies.
identifiable housing unit, such as an apartment or house, occupied by one or
家庭开机率 HUT (Households Using
A term describing the
total size of the audience, in households, at anyone time. Expressed as either
the projected audience size, or as a percent of the total number of households.
节目类型 Program type
A category of
programming usually based on similarities in program content.
简单随机抽样 Simple random
A one-stage probability sample in
which every member of the population has an equal chance of selection.
practice in which television shows am scheduled at the same time on 5
consecutive weekdays. Stations often strip syndicated programs.
加权样本 Weighted in-tab
number of individuals in different demographic groups who would have provided
usable information if response rates were equivalent. See sample weighting.
process of assigning mathematical weights in an attempt to correct over or
underrepresentation of some groups in the unweighted in-tab sample. See sample
The number of people
who are, realistically, in a position to use a medium at any point in time. It
is often operationally deaned as those actually using the medium (i.e., PUT or
可以接受的节目 LOP (least objectionable program)
A popular theory of
television audience behavior attributed to Paul Klein, that argues people
primarily watch TV for reasons unrelated to content, and they choose the least
describing a sample designed in such a way that audience projections may be
cumulative audience, it is the size of the unduplicated audience for a station
over a specified period. When the cume is expressed as percent of the market
population it is referred to as cume rating.
累计重叠 Cume duplication
percentage of a station's cume audience that also listened to another station,
within some specified period.
录像机 VCR (Video-Cassette Recorder)
appliance used for recording and playing videocassette tapes, now in a majority
of U.S. households.
点成本 CPP (Cost Per
A measure of how
much it costs to buy the audience represented by one rating point. The size of
that audience, and therefore its cost, varies with the size of the market
population on which the rating is based.
每千人（户）成本 CPM (Cost Per Thousand)
A measure of how much it costs to buy 1OOO audience
members delivered by an ad. CPMs are commonly used to compare the cost
efficiency of different advertising vehicles.
每周净循环 Net weekly circulation
cume or unduplicated audience using a station or network in a week.
目标受众 Target audience
well-defined subset of the total audience that an advertiser wants to reach with
a commercial campaign or a station wants to reach with a particular kind of
某时期平均值 Time period averages
of a broadcast audience at an average point in time, within some specified
每个收视家庭的观众 VPVH (Viewers Per Viewing
The estimated number of
people, usually by demographic category, in each household tuned to a particular
平均15分钟间隔（AQH） AQH (Average Quarter
用于报告特定时段内平均受众量的标准时间单位。（如：AQH 视听率，AQH 受众份额）。
The standard unit of
time for reporting average audience estimates(e.g.,AQH rating, AQH share)within
平均受众视听率 Average audience
The rating of
a station or program at an average point in time within some specified period of
time. Metered data, for example, allow reports of audience size in an average
minute during a television program.
A common phenomenon of
aggregate audience behavior in which the audience for one program tends to be
disproportionately represented in the audience for other programs on the same
In advertising, the
average number of times that an individual is exposed to a particular
describing the tendency of viewers to frequently change channels, a behavior
that is presumably facilitated by remote control.
群抽样 Cluster sample
type of probability sample in which aggregations of sampling units, called
clusters, are sampled at some stage in the process.
of telephone survey in which interviewers ask respondents what they are watching
or listening to at the time of the call. Coincidentals, based on probability
samples, often set the standard against which other ratings methods are judged.
趋势分析 Trend analysis
A type of
longitudinal survey design in which results from repeated independent samplings
are compared over time.
A Study in which
every member of a population is interviewed or measured.
A category of
variables often used to describe the composition of audiences. Common
demographics include age, gender, education, occupation and income.
paper booklet, distributed by ratings companies, in which audience members are
asked to record their television or radio use, usually for one week. The diary
can be for an entire household (television) or for an individual (radio).
device that electronically records the on-off and channel tuning condition of a
TV set and is capable of identifying viewers. If viewers must enter that
information by button pressing, the meter is caned active; if the meter requires
no effort from viewers, it is called passive.
total number of persons or households from which a sample is drawn. Membership
in a population must be clearly defined, often by the geographic area in which a
受众流动 Audience flow
The extent to
which audiences persist from one program or time period to the next. See
audience duplication, inheritance effects.
受众重叠 Audience duplication
A cumulative measure of the audience that
describes the extent to which audience members for one program or station are
also in the audience of another program or station.
受众细分 Audience fragmentation
A phenomenon in which the audience for a medium
is distributed across a large number of program services. Cable is said to
fragment the television audience, resulting in a decreased average audience
share for each channel.
associated with audience fragmentation, in which the audiences for channels or
stations use them more intensively than an average audience member.
A phenomenon of audience
behavior usually expressed as the ratio of a station's cumulative audience to
its average quarter hour audience.
technique of data analysis in which the responses to one item are paired with
those of another item. Cross, tabs are useful in determining the audience
duplication between two programs.
of time, usually defined by certain hours of the day and days of the week (e.g.,
weekdays vs. weekends), used to estimate audience size for the purpose of buying
and selling advertising time. Dayparts can also be defined by program content
(e.g., news, sports).
收音机个人开机率 PUR (Persons Using Radio)
term describing the total size of the radio audience at any point.
随机拨号 Random Digit Dialing
telephone surveys, a technique for creating a probability sample by randomly
generating telephone numbers. By using this method, all numbers (including
unlisted) have an equal chance of being called.
simplest form, the percentage of persons or households tuned to a station,
program, or daypart out of the total market population.
number of sets turned on at a given point. As a measure of audience size, it has
become outdated since most households now have multiple sets.
收听时间 TSL (Time Spent
A cumulative measure of the average
amount of time an audience spends listening to a station within a daypart.
推及的受众 Projected audience
size of an audience estimated to exist in the population, based on sample
In television, a daypart just after the
late local news(11pm EST).
Programs originally produced to
air on a major broadcast network, now being sold in syndication.
The actual number of individuals
in different demographic groups who have returned usable information to the
acquire commercial time (usually in similar types of programming) from stations
around the country and package that time for sale to advertisers.
The total number of
unduplicated audience members exposed to a media vehicle (e.g. newspaper
station) over some specified period.
that measures the strength and direction of the relationship between two
variables. It may range in value from +1.O to-1.0, with O indicating no
A kind of probability
sample in which a set interval is applied to a list often population to identity
elements included in the sample (e.g., picking every 10th name).
A video distribution system
that uses coaxial cable and optical fiber to deliver multichannel service to
households within a geographically defined franchise area.
The extent to which
households in a given market subscribe to cable service. Typically expressed as
the percent of all TV households that subscribe to basic cable.
A concept in
media planning stipulating that a certain amount of exposure to an advertising
message is necessary before it is effective. Often used interchangeably with the
term effective frequency.
有效样本量 ESS (Effective Sample
The size of a simple
random sample needed to produce the same result as the sample actually used by
the rating company. ESS is a convenience used for calculating confidence
intervals. Also called effective sample base, or ESB.
common phenomenon of television audience behavior in which the audience for one
program is disproportionately represented in the audience of the following
program. Sometimes called lead-in effects, audience inheritance can be thought
of as a special case of channel loyalty.
action, taken by an affiliate, in which programming fed by a network is replaced
with programming scheduled by the station. Certain types of commercial time can
also be preempted by advertisers willing to pay a premium for the spot.
A subset of some population.
practice of assigning different mathematical weights to various subsets of the
in-tab sample in an effort to correct for different response rates among those
subsets. Each weight is the ratio of the subset's size in the population to its
size in the sample.
The extent to
which nonmarket stations are viewed by local audiences, or local stations are
viewed by audiences outside the market.
In probability sampling, a
statement of the likelihood that a range of values (i.e. confidence interval)
will include the true population value.
The number of times
an advertising schedule is seen over time. The number of gross impressions may
exceed the size of the population since audience members may be duplicated.
总视听率点 GRP (Gross Rating
The gross impressions of
an advertising schedule expressed as a percentage of the population. GRPs are
commonly used to describe the size or media weight of an advertising campaign.
最低报告标准(MRS) Minimum reporting
The number of listening or viewing mentions
necessary for a station or program to be included in a ratings report.
strategy in which a station or network schedules content of the same type or
appealing to the same subset of the audience.
repeating the procedures of an early study to assess the stability of results.
In audience measurement, replications involve drawing subsamples from a parent
sample to assess sampling err
All those who tune to a
program for at least 5 minutes. Essentially, it is the cumulative audience for a
long program or miniseries.